Getting sick topic:
Antibiotics are chemicals that only destroy bacteria. They are usually taken in or on the body.
Penicillin is a fungus.
If someone has a sore throat and someone can hardly swallow his doctor will give him an antibiotic because it will destroy the bacteria in his throat but it wont cure his cold because antibiotics don't affect viruses. When you are on antibiotics you must take every tablet otherwise the bacteria in his throat will grow back and those antibiotics wont work in future. If this happened to someone then a doctor could prescribe you a different antibiotic and when you are on this different course of antibiotics then you must take the whole prescription and not simply stop when you feel better as you did to the previous medication. You must take every antibiotic as and when they are prescribed.
Sadly lots of people don't finish their course of antibiotics or antibiotics are often used too often for small problems and we have more antibiotic resistant bacteria in the world. This has happened a lot over the past 20 years and new antibiotics are continually being developed to destroy harmful bacteria which are resistant to the old ones. It is almost becoming a race of how quickly scientists can develop new antibiotics to combat the old resistant ones. Bacteria resistant to many antibiotics such as MRSA are a serious problem in hospitals as they get into your wounds, spread through your tissues and often kill you. However it is difficult to keep these bacteria out of the hospitals as a quarter us carry them on our skin or up our noses naturally and some of them may be resistant. But scientists are developing new technology using viruses to infect and destroy the resistant bacteria. This coats the virus particles onto stitches and dressings.
Getting complex topic:
Each cell in your body has a nucleus except red blood cells. The nucleus contains DNA. DNA is arranged into chromosomes. We have 23 pairs of chromosomes. We have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes
A biological female has an xx pair of sex chromosomes and a biological male has an XY pair of sex chromosomes.
Sex cells (sperm and egg cells) contain half the amount of DNA that a body cell has in it. 1 of each chromeosome-23 chromosomes. There are 23 chromosomes in the sperm and 23 chromosomes in the egg and these come together to make 23 pairs of chromosomes.  These 23 pairs of chromosomes will them replicate themselves to form an embryo.
Embryonic stem cells are very important as they can become anything. They are sometimes referred to as unspecialised cells. They will embed into the uterus lining and start to form a baby. This is what's known as the cells starting to specialise.
Getting energy topic:
O2 and glucose being delivered to cells is otherwise known as Respiration.
Gaseous exchange happens in the capillaries.
Arteries carry oxygenated blood.
Veins carry deoxygenated blood.
Veins carry the blood to the heart whereas the arteries carry blood away from the heart.
Air enters the mouth and moves into the trachea. Air we breathe in has a high concentration of oxygen and a low concentration of carbon dioxide. Air passes from the trachea to the bronchi and then into the bronchioles, before then reaching the alveoli. Gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli. Oxygen moves into the red blood cells and carbon dioxide moves from the blood plasma into the alveoli. This air is then breathed our-exhaled air contains a high concentration of carbon dioxide and a low concentration of oxygen.
Food moves from the stomach and into the small intestine. Bile is then released into the small intestine from the Gaul bladder and breaks down fats into smaller fat droplet. Protease is released into the small intestine from the pancreas to break down protein into amino acids. Amino acids, glucose and fat droplets are absorbed from the small intestine into the bloodstream. Waste and water from digestion pass into the large intestine. Here, water moves out of the large intestine and into the bloodstream. The remaining waste moves into the rectum before being released through the anus as faeces or poo. Starch is broken down by amylase into glucose and is then absorbed into the bloodstream across the villi. Microvilli increase the surface area for rapid and efficient absorption into the blood. Sugar or glucose is then used in respiration but excess sugar in the blood is then stored in the liver and muscles. Sugar is then converted into glycogen for storing.
Protein in our diet comes from meat, fish, nuts, pulses and eggs (egg white in eggs only). Protein is needed by the body for growth and repair. Protein is broken down in the small intestines by protease that is made by the pancreas. Proteins are long chains of amino acids. The protein chain is broken down into individual amino acids that are then small enough to move from the small intestine and into the blood capillaries. Once the amino acids are inside of the blood stream, the amino acids are built back into proteins by our cells. Fat molecules need to be broken down through digestion. Fat in our diet comes from oils and butter, meats and fish, dairy products such as cheese and butter, nuts, pulses and fatty fruits, and some vegetables. Fats are essential in the diet for fat production, help to insulate and protect organs and are also essential for healthy brain development. Fats are broken down by bile that is produced by the Gaul bladder. It breaks down large molecules into small fat molecules. These are then absorbed through the small intestine and into the blood capillaries. Protease and amylase are both digestive enzymes. They break down large molecules (chains) into smaller individual components.
Getting sick topic:
Fungi and bacteria have many uses. Some special types of bacteria know as lactobacillus can convert milk into yoghurt. They can also turn milk into cheese. Blue cheese is blue because it is slightly mouldy! Types of fungi are added into the cheese in order to make the blue veins. Yeast is another type of fungi, which when added to glucose and water produces carbon dioxide and alcohol. This process is called fermentation and is used to make alcoholic drinks and bread. Some countries such as Brazil make alcohol through sugar cane and this can be used instead of petrol in cars. Another food product that is made by microbes is vinegar. Certain bacteria can turn alcohol into an acid called acetic acid which is the scientific name for vinegar. Bacteria can turn all types of alcohol into vinegar including wine, beer and cider. A type of fungi is also used to make Quorn. The fungi are grown in large chambers, collected and compressed together to make Quorn. Quorn is a healthy alternative to meat because it is high in protein and low in fat and because it is made of microbes and not animals is also a suitable vegetarian option, should that be your diet of choice.  Bacteria carry out a process called decay. They break down dead plants, animals and animal waste into harmless products. This process can be used in sewage works where bacteria break down the sewage in order to turn it back into clean water. Bacteria also break down plant material to make compost, which in a gardening use can be used to add nutrients to the soil. Some bacteria give out a smelly gas called methane when they are carrying out decay. This can be used as a fuel for cooking or for making electricity. Some fungi produce a chemical called an antibiotic which will kill bacteria. We can use fungi to make antibiotics. These are used to treat bacterial infections. The most famous type of antibiotic is known as penicillin.
Yeast practical-This investigation looked at how temperature affects the rate of respiration in yeast. My hypothesis is that the temperature will affect the respiration rate in yeast. My prediction is that the warmer the temperature, the faster the yeast will respire. The equation for respiration is oxygen + glucose-->Carbon Dioxide +Water .    The carbon dioxide is our dependent variable or the thing that we measure and the temperature is the independent variable of what we change in our experiment.  We will then make an observation after 30 minutes and see which balloon has filled with more carbon dioxide.  Into each beaker we put one spatula of yeast, 2 spatulas of sugar, 20 ml of water (warm or cold), and we will swirl it regularly throughout the experiment. The warm water in beaker one comes from the kettle and the cold water in beaker 2 comes from the tap. The result was that the hotter beaker respired more than the cold one.
The body has external defence mechanisms to try and prevent microbes from entering the body. Microbes that make you ill manage to breach these and therefore make you sick. These are known as pathogens.
Your skin is a waterproof barrier that is dry in order to prevent the growth of microbes. Tears contain a natural antiseptic in order to prevent microbe growth in the eye. Mucus catches microbes and prevents growth. The cilia traps microbes in the airways and in mucus and the cilia sweeps the mucus out of the airways. Your stomach acid has a low Ph in order to destroy any microbes we eat. Scabs are where platelets make a criss cross structure at the site on your body where you get cut. Red Blood cells get caught in this, dry and then form a scab. Scabs make a barrier in order to prevent microbes from entering the body. Vaginal discharge is the fluid that washes the vagina and prevents microbial growth.

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